Crystalline silicon photovoltaic module production process in detail

Release time: 2023-06-25

1.Crystalline silicon growth

Crystalline silicon growth is the first step in the fabrication of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. The main processes include three methods: the Czochralski method, the Float-Zone method and the intrinsic crystal method. Of these, the Czochralski method is the most common method for producing crystalline silicon. In this process, the molten silicon is stirred in a glass to achieve a uniform temperature and composition distribution.

2.Silicon wafer preparation

Silicon wafers are usually prepared using processing sand cores, where silicon crystals with a diameter of 200mm to 300mm are cut and sawn into thin slices, usually between 150 and 300μm thick, and then processed by grinding on both sides, etc., to give them good surface roughness and optical properties.

3.Cell production

Cell production is the core of crystalline silicon photovoltaic module production, including MWT cell technology and PERC cell technology two processes. Among them, MWT cell technology is mainly through the aluminum wafer grinding into a narrow strip, it will be fixed in the front of the silicon wafer, and then deposited thickness of 200 ~ 300nm aluminum reflective film, and then coated with silicone in the front, the formation of p-type structure; PERC cell technology is formed on the surface of the crystal silicon p-type structure above, and then etched out a surface electron precision hole, and then formed n-type structure, and finally deposited reflective film and transparent conductive film.


Encapsulation is the final step in making the cell into a photovoltaic module, mainly including cleaning, cutting, cell layout, wire bonding, encapsulation tape, reinforced glass and other links. Among them, the choice of appropriate packaging materials and processes is the key to improving the performance of photovoltaic modules, which is conducive to the long-term stability and power output of the components.

In summary, the process of making a crystalline silicon PV module is very complex and needs to cover several stages, including crystalline silicon growth, silicon wafer preparation, cell fabrication and encapsulation. Professional equipment and processes need to be used in each step of the process to ensure consistent product quality and reliable performance. At the same time, producers also need to pay attention to preventing various sources of contamination, such as oxidation and crystal nucleation, in order to improve the quality and performance stability of their products.


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